Geographical Statistics of Scotland

Scotland consists of the northern third of Great Britain and about 800 smaller islands off its coast. Largest of these island chains are the Orkney, Shetland, and Hebrides. Overall, the country covers 30,918 square miles, or 80,077 square kilometers, of the United Kingdom. Its largest cities are Glasgow (approx. population 599,000) and its capital, Edinburgh (approx. 482,000.) Its total population is about 5.4 million people.

Climate and Landscapes of Scotland

Scotland is more rugged and cold than the rest of the British Isles. Its southern border with England is dominated by plains and river valleys. To the north lies the Highlands, a mountainous region known for its pristine forests and low population density. The Flow Country, to the far north, is home to the largest blanket bog in Europe. The climate of Scotland is temperate and maritime, with mild summers and wet or snowy winters. Its forests are home to tree species like the Scots pine, birch, elm, alder, aspen, hazel, oak, and willow. Common wildlife include pine martens, seals, red squirrels, wildcats, red deer, and a number of migratory seabirds.

The United Kingdom, including Scotland, from the CIA World Factbook.

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Hill, Roland. Scotland: Land of Lochs and Glens. I.B. Tauris. 2002.

Lang, Andrew. A Short History of Scotland. Dodd, Mead, and Co. 1912.

Sanderson, William. Scottish Life and Character. MacMillan Co. 1904.

“The World Factbook: United Kingdom.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 4 June 2018,

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